SOCY 101 exam 1 spring 2011

If you'll mark your answers on this booklet and keep it, you can learn your score by checking the answer key. I’ll announce in class where it can be found on the web. Use a pencil to mark your multiple-choice answers on the machine-readable form. Be sure to include your VCU ID number (the first nine columns of the "identification" section) and to fill in the circles below both your name and number. Good luck!

1. The term "survival of the fittest," which is a principle part of the concept of social Darwinism, was coined by ________.

A) Charles Darwin

B) Talcott Parsons

C) Auguste Comte

D) Herbert Spencer*

2.   Max Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life characterized by people living frugal lives and saving their money as the ________.


A) spirit of capitalism

B) socialist conscience

C) Protestant ethic

D) manifest function

      3. The sociologist who developed the concept of the power elite was ________.

A) C. Wright Mills *

B) Talcott Parsons 

C) Robert K. Merton

D) F. Ivan Nye 

      4. Functionalists and conflict theorists tend to focus on the ________, or large scale patterns of society, in conducting their analyses.

A) macro level *

B) micro level

C) symbolic level 

D)  interactionist level 

5. What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?

A) intergenerational mobility*

B) intragenerational mobility

C) structural mobility

D)  exchange mobility

6. In 1996, the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Supporters of this reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. What is the primary evidence they point out to support this?

A) The number of people on welfare has significantly decreased. *

B) The unemployment rate is now lower.

C) Fewer teenagers are having babies.

D)  Fewer people qualify as being in poverty. 

7. ________ are the most likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today.

A) Children *

B) The elderly

C) Middle-aged adults

D)  Young, single males

8. What variables are most often included in a population pyramid?

A) percentage of population by race, level of education

B) percentage of population by race, sex

C) percentage of population by race, age 

D) percentage of population by sex, age*

9. What is infrastructure?

A) Unknown costs in money and resources needed to complete a project.

B) The ruling body of a society, especially in a non-democratic society.

C) The essential factors on which cities depend, such as rapid transportation and communications.*

D) A condition of social inequality that pits the haves and have nots in the same general area.


10. A central city that is surrounded by smaller cities and suburbs is referred to as a(n) ________.

A) urban village

B) megalopolis

C) metropolis *

D) suburbia

11. What term did Karl Marx use to describe the dissatisfaction and unrest felt by workers when they are separated from the ownership of their work?

A) alienation *

B) false consciousness

C) capitalism

D) anomie

  12. The shift from traditional societies into industrial societies is called ________.

A) positivism

B) postmodernism

C) modernization *

D) contemporization

13. According to Marx, human history shows that struggle develops between the thesis and its antithesis, leading to a synthesis. Marx called this historical change a(n) ________.

A) radical transformation

B) cyclical activity

C) dialectical process *

D) analytic process

14. What name is given to political parties whose central issue is the environment and the practice of responsible ecology?

A) utopian parties

B) reform parties

C) naturalist parties

D) green parties *

15. In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the most common basis for social stratification has been ________.

A) race

B) income

C) education

D) gender*


16. The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________.

A) social stratification *

B) social networking

C) the diversification of society

D) multiculturalism

17. What term did Lenin and Trotsky use to describe the intermediate step between the czarist society prior to the revolution and the ideal society they hoped to establish?

A) capitalism

B) communism

C) socialism *

D)  totalitarianism

18.On what factor was the stratification system of the old Soviet Union based? 

A) ownership of the means of production

B) elimination of all class distinctions

C) inherited wealth

D)  political position within the Communist Party *

19. Theorists who suggest that the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain a "reserve labor force" is most aligned with the ________ perspective.

A) structural

B) functionalist

C) symbolic interactionist

D)  conflict*

  20. Language allows culture to develop by freeing people to move beyond their immediate experiences.
A) true *    B) false


21.  According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language is nothing more than common sense expressed in words and gestures| A) true     B) false* 

22.          A correlation simply means that two or more variables are present together. 
A) true*     B) false

23. For an independent variable to be the cause of an event, it must precede that which is changed (the dependent variable). 

A) true*     B) false

24. Defining social class in America is an objective science because there are clear-cut, agreed-upon definitions of each class. 
A) true     B) false*

25. Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class.
A) true     B) false*

26. Since 1970, the richest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown richer, and the poorest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown poorer.
A) true*     B) false

27. Overall, there has been a decrease in the rate of population growth worldwide.
A) true*     B) false


             28. Drought and warfare are the major causes of world starvation, not a lack of food. 
                   A) true*     B) false

29.  Cultures almost never change rapidly. A feature of cultural change is that it is slow and gradual.

a. true     b. false*

30. When we identify a cultural universal, does that mean that every person in a society engages in that kind of behavior?
a. yes     b. no*

31 Have we discovered an altruistic gene?
a. yes     b. no*

32. All known human societies have had religion and ritual. The fact that these are cultural universals tells us that ______.
a. religious leaders have a great deal of power
b. from the beginning there has been something important for humans about religion.*
c. political leaders have always supported religious organizations

33 Daniel Chirot (Social Change in the Modern Era) believes that a key reason why northwestern Europe got rich while many other world regions didn’t was that ______.
a. northwestern Europe had better access to oceans
b. northwestern Europe was politically fragmented, which meant that cities had a great deal of freedom*
c. northwestern Europe had strong rulers
d. northwestern Europe invented gunpowder

34 In Marx’s analysis, who are the “bourgeoisie”?
a. owners*
b. workers
c. managers
d. bureaucrats
e. conservatives

35 The first attempt to realize Marx's vision was in __________.
a. China
b. Vietnam
c. Russia and the Soviet Union*
d. Cuba

36 Max Weber wrote about three types of authority. Which type is illustrated by Thomas Jefferson's ideas about democracy?
a. charismatic
b. rational-legal*
c. traditional
d. popular

37 In the 1648 Peace Treaty of Westphalia, signing nations set rules for international law that held until at least 1945. This treaty declared that ______.
a. every country had sovereignty*
b. international disputes should be decided by the World Court
c. wars should be fought according to internationally agreed-to rules
d. all countries should follow uniform standards for criminal justice

38. The Clash of Civilizations, Samuel Huntington writes about the requirements for modernization among countries that are currently not doing so well. Is it true, as Huntington sees it, that other nations need to Westernize in order to modernize?
a. yes     b. no*

39. The only solution to the problem of having too many facts is _______.
a. to use theories*
b. to carry out analysis with a computer
c. to have large research teams
d. none of the above

40. What is "hard" about the social sciences?
a. The statistical procedures in the social sciences are very complex.
b. Definitions in the social sciences are hard to formulate.
c. It is hard to acquire good evidence, because experiments are of limited use.*
d. It is difficult to develop good research questions in the social sciences.

41. Assumptions are an important element of analysis. Wallace and Wolf (Contemporary Sociological Theory) point out that different theoretical paradigms imply different sets of assumptions. Sociological theorists' most important underlying assumptions, they suggest, concern ______.
a. conflict
b. justice
c. inequality
d. human nature*

42. What were the immigration policies in the U.S. before the 1920s?
a. Immigration laws emphasized family reunification.
b. There were no laws that favored certain immigrants over others.*
c. Legislation favored Eastern and Southern Europeans.
d. US laws favored immigrants from Asia

43. Some countries in Europe (for example, Germany) have tended to define nationality according to ancestry.
a. true*
b. false

44. Which field of study tends to be the more deductive – the humanities or the sciences?
a. the humanities
b. the sciences*


45. Globalization means that there is less competition for jobs than in earlier eras.
a. true
b. false*


46. I emphasize in class that this discipline often emphasizes how factors inside our heads influence us.
a. psychology*
b. anthropology
c. economics

d. political science


47. Can a good theory be proven to be true?
a. yes
b. no*


48. I suggested in class that special interest groups have a lot to do with how cities are structured.
a. true*
b. false


49. France, Germany and the United Kingdom all had “baby booms” following World War Two.
a. true
b. false*


50. Tyler Cowen talks about different kinds of diversity. Which one of the following is a type of diversity that is decreasing as globalization advances today?
a. diversity across societies*
b. diversity within society
c. practical diversity


51. I talked in class about two major shifts in U.S. immigration policy during the 20th century. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Quotas were established in 1965 that gave Europeans who wanted to immigrate an advantage over people from other continents.
b. In 1965, the main factor in determining eligibility to immigrate became family reunification.*
c. In 1924, Latin Americans who wanted to immigrate gained an advantage over people from other places because of a new quota system.

d. In 1995, the main factor in determining eligibility to immigrate became job skills.


52. Is US immigration policy much different from the policies of other countries in North America and Western Europe?
a. yes*
b. no


53.  _____ now accounts for the largest number of immigrants entering the United States.
a. France
b. Germany
c. Mexico*
d. Canada

e. Viet Nam


54. Merchant cities created a _____ society, and commerce created a _____ society.
a. wealthy; conflictual
b. commercial; civil*
c. restless; warlike
d. growing; peaceful


55. I suggested in a class lecture that cities have always been the "engines" of economic life in a country.
a. true*
b. false


56. What changes when a culture is transformed? (Choose the best answer, as the process is described in an online lecture.)
a. the way we see things – our perceptions of reality*
b. the most fundamental laws in a society
c. the key organizations that guide societies
d. languages

57. Recent immigrants to the US tend to differ significantly in ethnicity, education and skills from native-born Americans.
a. true*     b. false


58. In 1965, the United States established a system that heavily emphasized _____ in granting people permission to immigrate.
a. education of immigrants
b. national origin of immigrants
c. whether or not immigrants had relatives living in the US*
d. the skill level of immigrants


59. Research shows that recent immigrants are about the same as immigrants of several decades ago in their education and skill levels.
a. true     b. false*

60. In the demographic transition theory, a "population explosion" traditionally occurs in the ________ stage.

A) first

B) second*

C) third

D) fourth